MICRO FUNGI FROM SURFACE SOIL OF MULBERRY FARMS IN THE KASHMIR VALLEY AND THEIR POPULATION DYNAMICS. N.A.MIR AND N.A.MUNSIU DIVISION OF SERICULTURE S.K.A.U. S. T MIRGUND KASHMIR INDIA Background and objectives Many pathogenic fungi of mulberry are perpetuating in plant debris or directly in different morphological forms in soil. The purpose of the work reported here was to qualify and quantity, population of pathogenic and non pathogenic fungi from surface soils of various mulberry farms of the kashmir valley under single tillage. Materials and methods Soil samples were collected by means of sterile metal sampling tubes (Eicker, 1969). Composite soil samples of 17 mulberry farms(2-3 from each of the six districts of state). consisting of pooted soil of ten random samples , collected between plant rows up to depth of 15cnis, were dried for 24 hours at 28 degree celsius 1, after drawing the samples for moisture% & pH. The dried soil was sieved through 20 mesh screen and material retained on screen termed as plant debris , what passed through screen labelled as soil. Micro fungi were isolated from both the fractions. Both dilution plate method (Waksnian & Fred 1922) and soil plate method (Warcup,1950) were used to isolate & quantitate fungi from soil. In dilution plate method dilutions were made with 2% agar water. The medium used was potato dextrose agar -with traces of rose bengal or streptopencillin. In soil plate method 20mgs of soil were sprinkled per plate on Czapek's dox agar medium with 0.5% yeast extract and traces of rose bengal or streptopencillin. Isolation for pure culture were made on potato dextrose agar, Czapek's dox-agar & Richard's agar media. Fungi obtained from plant debris and soil were identified employing standard techniques. The identification were got confirmed where ever needed from M (England) and ITIC (IARI) New Delhi. Results and conclusions Eight different fungi were found associated with plant debris which include: -Phleospora maculans, Altemaria tenuissima, Fusarium pallidoroseum, Camarosporiuni perssini, Tricothecium roseum, Helicobasidium campactum
  • , Nectria sp & Cladosporium sp. 12 different fungi were isolated from soil and their population dynamics were studied. Alternaria tenuissima, Pencillium pinophilum, Fusarium pallidoroseum,Fusarium oxvsposum, Gliocladium sp, Cladosporium sp , Rhizopus sp, Mucor sp and Mycelia sterilia were observed in the soils of each of 17 mulberry farms with average population of around 9, 7.9, 4.9, 2.1, 2.7, 3.7, 2.1, 1.1 and 1.1 thousand colonie per gram dry soil. Paecilomyces sp was present in only 16 mulberry farm with around 1.8 thousand colonies per gram soil.Beauveria bassiana in soils of 3 mulberry farms only with 1000 colonies per gram dry soil and Aspergillus sp present in ten soil samples only, and a population of 1000 colonies per gram dry soil was recorded. It is evident from present study that soils of mulberry farm harbour many pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi in sufficient quantity under single conventional fillage,Alternaria tenuissima, Fusarium pallidorosuem.. Pencillium pinophilium and cladosporium sp accounted for up to 72.22% of total fungal population detected in the soil.Of the various fungi isolated from plant debris and soil,Phleospora maculans, Fusarium pallidoroseum, Camarosporium perssini and Helicobasidium campactum are serious pathogens of mulberry in the Kashmir valley causing leaf spot, twig blight, canker and root rot diseases respectively. References [11 Eicker A, 1969 Trans. British A,@ycological Society 53 (3), 381-392- [2] Waksman, SA, Fred B, 1922. Soil Science 14, 27-28.