DISEASES OF COFFEE IN INDIA AND THEIR MANAGEMENT
N KANNAN, S DAIVASIKAMANI, BT HANUMANTHA and SS BHAT
Central Coffee Research Institute, Coffee Research Station - 577 117, Chikmagalur District, Karnataka State, India
Coffee is an important product, after petroleum, in the international market. For growing this commercially important crop, the disease leaf rust, caused by Hemileia vastatrix Berk .& Br., has been a limiting factor ever since it was reported in South India in 1869. Although research on diseases of coffee in India was started as early as in 1915, more methodological research was started only in 1925. The outstanding research work done during 1925-35 by WW Mayne on the discovery of the existence of four physiological races of coffee leaf rust fungus, its biology and epidemiological aspects. Also the spray schedule formulation to control the most important diseases of coffee have become basic aspects for subsequent research on various disease of coffee.
Among the cultivars of coffee, Coffee arabica and Coffea canephora are the two species commercially cultivated in India. Arabica is more susceptible to diseases than robusta coffee.
The seven important disease of coffee which occur in India are Leaf Rust, Black rot, Root diseases (four types), Anthracnose (three types), Berry Blotch, Brown Eye Spot and Collar rot. All these diseases are fungal in origin. In addition to the above, there are seven diseases of minor importance, three flowering parasites and one non-parasitic disorder.
In this paper the important diseases and their management practices are dealt with. They are controlled/managed by integrating cultural practices, planting resistant/tolerant cultivars, use of biocontrol agents and judicious and timely application of fungicides.