A representation of a plant cell. The plant cell wall/membrane is represented by green border around a rounded square. Inside this 2D cell is pale yellow shading to represent the cytoplasm. Outside of the cell, a red oblongg with 1 tail symbolises a bacterium on the cell surface. A nematode is attached to the outside of the cell. A purple rounded shape represents a fungus with tendrils inside the cell. There is also an insect with feeding mouthparts. In the cell is a green circle for the plant nucleus and a green chloroplast. Symbols represent effector proteins produced by each pathogen or pest and where they localise - to cytoplasm, nucleus or chloroplast. See

Pathogens pulling the strings: effectors manipulating plants’ signalling pathways –Molecular Plant Pathology highlight.

27th September 2021